Europe and the People Without History notes I

copyright 1982, 1997

Preface: x A.D. 1400 as the initial dateline for the presentation ….that European expansion everywhere encountered human societies and cultures characterized by long and complex histories…”interlocked” [these developments]

Societies and cultures have always formed parts of larger systems.”

xi mode of production: how a society mobilizes social labor ….the human relations to the natural environment, the social relations of humans to humans, (and institutions and ideas that guide these relations)

xiii  culture refashioning and culture change

xiv “the relations of power that mediate between the mobilization of social labor in society and the mental schemata that define who does what in the division of that labor”

xv “the major forces driving the interaction of cultures since 1492– the forces propelling Europe into commercial expansion and industrial capitalism.”

Part One Conncetions

Everyone has connections. there was no so called primitives or “people without history” (p4)

Saint Simon, Auguste Comte, and Lorenz Stein都在回答社會秩序如何可能的問題,但也將「社會的」獨立出來。(p8-9)

“severance of social relations from the economic, political, and ideological contexts in which they are embedded” (9)

Ferdinand Tonnies ….from Gemeinschaft community to society Gesellschaft.

Foci: 資本主義滲透、全球專業與分工成長、某些人口支配其他人口

Alexander Lesser: “the universality of human contact and influence”  social field and the Evolution of Society (1961:42)

Ch3 Modes of Production

Marxist two axioms: 1) homo sapiens as a part of nature 2) as a social species (73)

人在改變自然的時候,也改變了他們自己的本質(quoted in Schmidt 1971:77-78)(The Concept of Nature in Marx)

a socially interrelated humanity and nature — 如何了解這複雜體?Marx: the notion of labor.

  1. a capitalist mode  (76-78) 資本家獨佔生產工具、迫使勞工出賣勞力、剩餘價值最大化 (商人控制勞力過程
  2. a tributary mode  (79-88) 亞洲/封建模式異曲同工,國家透過非經濟方式控制商人(80)、勞力仍由親屬與進貢負責
  3. a kin-ordered mode (89-99)親屬界定權利義務、內部階層男女差異、酋長可流動階層但控制力薄弱

但其實資本主義模仍然是靠軍火支撐 (100)

Ch4 Europe, Prelude to Expansion

Three major points:

  1. 歐洲上升(遠距離貿易開始成為歐洲國家的經濟命脈、內陸國家不如歐洲的重商、戰爭與貿易互相加乘)
  2. 王國上升
  3. 世界各地拓荒開採上升

伊比利半島兩國成功殖民,但盈餘不足以支撐行政與戰爭。荷蘭靠海外經商起家。英國從貴族轉型成海外統治。

Part Two In Search of Wealth

歐洲諸國之間的競爭全都變成是「全球性的」(129)

Ch 5 Iberians in America

  1. 西班牙挖銀,葡萄牙種糖
  2. The Hacienda (colonial legacies, whether royal corregidroes allowed hacienda owners to run) is not a pre-Hispanic past. (143-145)
  3. 沒有變成奴隸與勞工的成為海盜,從加勒比海一路到西非與馬達加斯加 (155)。
  4. 秘魯商人也從馬尼拉換取中國商品,馬尼拉也有印度商人 (153)。

Ch 6 The Fur Trade (皮毛貿易後:禮物交換是與歐洲人聯手幫助歐洲諸國彼此競爭後的產物)

  1. The Iroquoies: 多語酋長進行confederate coucils,武器由荷蘭英國法國人提供,17th軍火開戰太多促成母居母系社會
  2. the Potlatch: 西北與俄羅斯貿易,也有軍火,原有母系社會誇富宴變大,酋長部落間階層化出現,給食物變成給寶物(187),19th

Ch 7 The Slave Trade

16th 銀礦工人與糖廠工人,二十七萬,17th加勒比海一百三十萬非洲奴隸,18th奴隸買賣黃金時代,六百萬人,

葡萄牙人最早開始賣,荷蘭人與之在東非與西非爭奪(197)。南美與非洲也成為英國紡織工業的大市場(199)。「人」是原料。

歐洲人已經當奴隸很久,在拜占庭或伊斯蘭帝國下(p195, 201),十字軍東征(穆斯林與基督徒互相被抓去當奴隸)但非洲大規模?英國與蘇格蘭奴隸、北美印第安奴隸、但都在家鄉附近很容易逃走或叛亂(203)

歐洲人組織貿易,非洲人進行捕抓。歐洲人要多一點奴隸,才有這種貿易。由於軍火的進入(有些從近東來的,十四世紀就有,但葡萄牙人使軍火大規模進入),某些地區原本沒有國家都跑出國家(黃金海岸Asante與東剛果的Luba-Lunda)。

非洲原有組織可以提供的奴隸:被典當的債務人、罪人、與戰俘。

努爾人那類的非洲部落社會早就已經與歐洲有密切的接觸,絕非沒有歷史的人(230-231)。歐洲的歷史也 不能忽略非洲。

Ch 8

荷蘭原本有很多資本,船也比英國多出很多,但之後並沒有足夠獲利來應付戰爭。

英國人一開始要看Mughal臉色到十八世紀,帝國衰弱後,才透過原有的階級區分獲利,引進私人財產、大地主出現、司法習慣改變。十九世紀中業,叛亂一開始是來福槍裡面使用牛油與豬油(穆斯林與印度教徒忌諱)引發的。軍隊與官僚徹底改變了印度。

Summary of Boellstorff (2008), Coming of Age in Second Life

Originally posted on media/anthropology:

j8647

 

Boellstorff, T. 2008. Comingof Agein Second Life: An Anthropologist Explores the Virtually Human. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

NB – See previous blog entries for more detailed notes on each chapter

 

 

 

PART I: SETTING THE VIRTUAL STAGE

Chapter 1. The Subject and Scope of this Inquiry, 3-31

The book is an ethnography of the virtual world Second Life (SL) from June 2004 to January 2007. The aim is to rehabilitate the notion of ‘virtual’ by studying virtual worlds in their own terms. Inquiry into both the historical continuities and changes of this virtual world. The author argues that the notion of posthuman is misleading, for it is in being virtual that we are human. Instead he sets out to investigate virtual worlds as ‘techne’ (human practice that engages with the world and creates a new world as well as a new person: homo cyber). Second…

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Muhammad Cartooons — why portraits are not simply symbols, or a Muslim semiotics

1. Religious Reason and Secular Affection

Saba Mahmood

2. The Muhammad cartoons and multicultural democracies
GEOFFREY BRAHM LEVEY
University of New South Wales, Australia
TARIQ MODOOD
University of Bristol, UK
3. Between Cult and Culture: Bamiyan, Islamic Iconoclasm, and the Museum

Finbarr Barry Flood
The Art Bulletin, Vol. 84, No. 4. (Dec., 2002), pp. 641-659

浦島太郎之歌

屘舅公是2005時,曾經因為土地坍塌被26小時活埋後,奇蹟生還的挖井師傅。當時此工安事件因為事態嚴重,還有上新聞。今天屘舅公與三舅公來探視阿嬤,屘舅公說,小時候,阿嬤很照顧他。

阿嬤原本是九個兄弟姐妹中的第五個,前面有兩個哥哥兩個姊姊。前面的大哥自從當了日本兵去了南洋後還沒回來,老二也當兵,大姨婆二姨婆都嫁人了,反而變成 阿嬤是家中大姐。因為家裡需要人力,阿嬤很晚才嫁人,以當時的年紀來說,二十多歲還沒嫁,就會被人笑要做「繼母」。阿嬤婚前就種很多田,比如甘蔗園,收成 很好,很勤快,真作,還去兼差參加靠近台中南邊的南門橋工程,原本是吊橋,要改建成水泥。聽說,當時的土木工程很多都是女人在做的。只要「骨力」就可以 做。阿嬤約莫148公分的嬌小身軀,居然也去做工程。

阿嬤做工程時,女的阿祖派當時只有五六歲的屘舅公送便當去給她吃,還交代他:「如果大姐問你有沒有有吃,你要說你吃飽了」,言下之意就是不準屘舅公偷吃阿 媽的便當。屘舅公就乖乖地從大里走到現在的中興大學附近,等阿嬤中午休息吃便當。阿嬤問屘舅公吃飽沒,他乖乖地說吃飽了,但是他就眼睛金金地一直看著阿嬤 的便當,年紀小也不覺得害臊。

其實那個便當裡,只有白飯與九層塔炒蛋。兩種東西,沒有別的。

阿嬤看屘舅公一副很想吃的樣子,就說,「這乎你呷」。

結果,每次便當的菜,其實都是五歲的屘舅公在吃的,阿嬤只有吃白飯。

六十多年過去了,阿嬤八十八歲,躺在病房裡,無法說話,也張不開眼睛。屘舅公對我說,「我後來想,感覺三姊對我這累小弟真正是真照顧。」

三舅公一直忘記大家的名字,也忘記誰是誰。不過很認真地要我們把所有名字都寫在他的行事曆上面。

然後下午四點多,他們一起唱阿嬤童年時教他們唱的日本歌。屘舅公說,阿嬤無意中交會他浦島太郎的歌,自己也沒發現,等到有天屘舅公唱給她聽,她才問說:「你怎麼也會這首?」他說,「你甲我教ㄟ啊!」屘舅公不懂歌詞的意思,阿嬤就解釋給他聽:

浦島太郎          作曲 三宅延齡      作詞:石原和三郎

一、むかしむかし うらしま

昔昔、   浦島は           很久很久以前浦島太郎

  たす  かめ つ

  助けた龜に連れられて       被他所救的海龜

  りゅうぐうじょう  き  み

       龍宮城へ   來て見れば   帶去龍宮裡遊玩

      え       うつく

      繪にもかけない美しさ      龍宮裡的美景筆墨難以形容

 

  乙姬樣の    御馳走に      龍宮公主熱情招待

  たい ひらめ まいおどり

        鯛や比目魚の舞踴        鯛魚比目魚跳舞歡迎

  めずら

  ただ珍しくおもしろく                  稀奇又有趣

  つきひ    ゆめ うち

  月日のたつも夢の中                      時間也在如夢境般裡頭流逝

屘舅公描寫龍宮的情景給我聽,那是阿嬤告訴他的。

屘舅公說,現在連他的孫子都會唱這首歌。

阿嬤雖然緊閉雙眼,聽完他們唱歌,眼淚也流了下來。

Ethnographic study: Social network sites are “virtual campfires”

After five years participant observation, anthropologist Jenny Ryan has published her masters’ thesis about the social network sites Facebook, My Space and Tribe.net. She created a beautiful web version of her thesis at http://www.thevirtualcampfire.org/

In her thesis, she proposes that everyday involvement with these sites can be metaphorically represented as a “virtual campfire” that “bridges the gap between the place of the hearth and the space of the cosmos, potentially reversing what has been called “the disintegration of the public sphere” (Habermas 1962: 175).

http://www.antropologi.info/blog/anthropology/2008/ethnographic_study_social_network_sites_

cover

Questions of the people on Google.

一位美國密西根州立大學的研究生 Randal Olson,利用 google 搜尋引擎的 data ,做出了一個 google 自動補齊(autocomplete)功能的地圖。

自動補齊,就是你在 google 輸入一個字,後面就自動幫你加上最多人搜尋的辭彙。而這個地圖是由「為甚麼『(國名)』?」的問題所做出來的。

由此可見,最多人問有關於中国的問題,是「為甚麼中国污染這麼嚴重?」、日本是「為甚麼日本被視為群島?」、其它如「為甚麼香港人口這麼密集?為甚麼香港這麼富裕?」、「為甚麼北韓這麼貧窮?」

而全世界最多人問有關臺灣的問題,則是「為甚麼臺灣不在聯合國裡?」

The point of Media Anthropology

Excerpt from John Postill’s article What’s the point of media anthropology.

Faced with the cognitive contradictions of seeking to represent the divinities through figurative art, religious leaders in Israel, early Christianity, Islam or Protestantism stressed the need to relyexclusively on the written word of God (Goody 1997: 53). An engagement with such longue duree studies of media congeries can provide media anthropologists with a broad comparative canvass against which to set their own micro-historical accounts.

Jack Goody argues that ‘[a] wariness about re-presentation that, by definition, is not ‘the real thing’, is one element in the worldwidehistory of culture’ (1997: 152).

Mark A. Peterson (2003: 3) has suggested that media anthropology has three maincontributions to make:

  1. thick ethnographies, 深描互動
  2. a decentred West and 去中心的西方或非西方
  3. alternative theories. 社會文化脈絡 (「非暴力」)
Peterson, M. A. 2003. Anthropology and mass communication. Media and myth in the new millennium. New York and Oxford: Berghahn Books

First, in contrast to other media scholars, media anthropologists conduct relatively extended, open-ended fieldwork in which media artefacts and practices are but one partof the social worlds under study. Second, media anthropologists are as likely to work inremotecornersoftheglobalSouthastheyareinmetropolitanareasofEuropeorNorthAmerica. This wide geographical scope allows them to broaden the media researchagenda from its traditional North Atlantic heartland. Third, media anthropologists bring to the study of media a long disciplinary history of grappling with sociocultural complexity through theories of exchange, social formations and cultural forms. Thistheoretical expertise, argues Peterson, can help the field to finally leave behind thesimple models of communication that dominated its earlier history. Continue reading

Another high diverce rate Muslim-majority country: Egypt

Do you think that khul‘ is a contributing factor to Egypt’s rising divorce rate?

NS: According to Cuno, whom I make reference to in my book, the divorce rate in Egypt is declining. While it was very high at the beginning of the 20th century (around 50%), it has declined steadily towards a percentage of less than 20% at the end of the 20th century. I believe that the increased stigmatization attached to divorce as well as the enhanced importance attached to the nuclear family has contributed to the declining divorce rate. It does not mean that marital relationships have necessarily improved but rather that both the financial and non-financial costs of divorce are higher than in the past and for this reason, I do not think khul‘ will cause Egyptian divorce rates to suddenly skyrocket.

http://www.aucpress.com/t-eNewsletter-KhulDivorce-December2011.aspx?template=template_enewsletter

Continue reading

Collections of Pre-modern Female Warriors

Taiwan Lowland Aborigines from 1590 “Manila Manuscript”

「馬尼拉手稿」描繪的淡水原住民形象。

Tamchuy (Tanshui) is a kingdom known for violent people. They decapitate enemies and decorate the skull with gold, and hang those in their main wall of the house. A woman is always carrying the skull of an important man she killed. People respect this woman and think highly of her bravity.

淡水是一個與雞籠(王國)相鄰的王國。該地住著暴怒的人們,好於戰爭與爭吵。是傑出的 弓箭手並且經常四處行搶。在他們戰爭的時候,他們所有的人皆有一個習俗,即殺了某人後便割下頭顱、剝其皮,只留下頭蓋骨(casco),鑲上金;鑲金之 後,掛在屋裡最主要廳堂的牆上,他們與其和諧共住一起。這樣,他們以擁有這種大的戰利品而被視為勇敢,一位女性總是在手上帶著她殺的重要男性的頭骨,為 此,他們將看重並尊敬此女性為勇敢的人。(此段文字由李毓中教授抄譯,方真真教授修改。)

http://ihc.apc.gov.tw/Journals.php?pid=609&id=654

Acehese warriors

17C Aceh female warroiror. (Note the dress style is similar to the ones in Taiwan. )

Bottom right hand corner one can see Europeans.

ISIS. Do we really know what we are doing?

zolachao:

All of this brings us back to the USA’s strategy of how to deal with the extremists. Air-strikes are proving to be ineffective. Even if the decision were made to send in ground forces, it would be unlikely to have success, ISIS are very good at disappearing into the population, when I was in Menbij in Syria last year, it was already in the city but nobody knew it — they were simply waiting for the right time to take over. Added to this, if the USA and allies put boots on the ground, support for ISIS would explode, memories of the last war in Iraq are still very raw for many in the region. ISIS is trying to draw the USA further into conflict as it knows doing so will make it stronger.

So what is the solution? This is not an easy question to answer, at base this is an Arab problem which requires an Arab solution. First, the political reasons for why there is so much support for ISIS need to be addressed, being more inclusive for large parts of the population across the region and reducing government corruption.

Originally posted on Russell Chapman:

Much is being made of attempts to destroy ISIS but the question needs to be asked, will the current strategy work or will it lead to increased chaos in the Middle East?

ISIS

ISIS

 ISIS, or Daesh as they are called in the Middle East,appear not to be too worried about the USA-led coalition air-strikes. In fact they seem to have had very little impact so far.

The question being asked by governments in the region and around the world is what can be done to stop ISIS. They are effectively re-drawing the map of the Middle East, the Sykes-Picot Agreement has finally come undone. One of the things I find interesting is how little direct effort the governments of the Middle East as well as Egypt are putting into the fight considering the existential crisis which confronts them. Part of this comes down to culture, diverse Arab cultures do not have…

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