mysophobia 潔癖

Nastiness Diagnosis. Anthropology. Religion. Gender. Justice. A Personal Notepad For the General Public.

White Terrorists and Black Churches 白人恐怖主義與黑人教會

不會因為有了查爾斯頓教會的白人恐怖主義屠殺黑人事件,或是幾年前威斯康辛州的白人恐怖主義屠殺錫克教徒事件,美國警察就開始大規模突擊檢查、搜身、攔下白人。因為那樣的差別待遇制度是專門為黑人設計的,以及為了其他少數族裔設計的。同樣的,為什麼黑人教堂屠殺事件在主流媒體中,有時可以不被大肆報導為「恐怖主義」、視為「反恐戰爭」應打擊的一環,而只是「槍擊事件(shooting)」?或許是因為「恐怖主義」是專門為世界的邊緣族裔使用的,那是可以在選擇性刪減資訊並大幅簡化歷史後,可以符合各種帝國中心對期刻板印象的邊緣群體,才能專用的一組詞彙。

而什麼樣的譴責是一種最簡單不用思考(最安全、也最不容易引起反彈)的譴責?歐巴馬的標準答案:「在我們尋求心靈慰藉的地方殺人」。這是因為人們一直誤以為「宗教敬拜場所」是與「政治」分隔開來的,或者「應該」要分隔開來的。「心靈慰藉場所」就應該與「政治」分開,更不可以讓暴力慎入,畢竟唯一合法執行暴力的機構,就只是有掌握「政治」的國家。這樣的觀點忽略了人類歷史中,弱勢群體的自我認同在強大的軍事(化)政權下如何不斷透過宗教生活來維繫社群,給予自身被壓抑的生命更完整的意義。而這些過程無論多麼私密與個人,都可以被視為是政治。

我與許多美國知識份子一樣,認為這是恐怖主義,更確切的說,是白人恐怖主義。

寫道關於黑人的宗教機構往往在美國是黑人自由的象徵:

Black religious institutions were emblems of freedom and thus legitimate targets in the eyes of white supremacists.

We often imagine religious spaces as set apart from other spheres of life, which makes an attack on a church seem especially abhorrent. But the lines that divide the religious from the political have always been more porous than Thomas Jefferson’s imagined “wall of separation” between church and state. Black churches exist as simultaneously religious and political institutions, and that has made them targets. Sermons unpacking scriptural passages also mobilize resistance to racism; hymns that praise God affirm the value of black life in the same breath. For this reason, institutions like Emanuel AME stand as affronts to white supremacy. To paraphrase Frederick Douglass, black churches have long distinguished the “Christianity of Christ” from slaveholding religion, the “Christianity of this land” that is Christian in name only. Because of this, black churches have served as ever-present threats to white power.

白人至上恐怖份子不見得對黑人教會的政治意涵有如此熟悉的背景知識,而只是選擇了一個「安檢」最為鬆懈之處,進行他糊塗的白人至上大業。但正如Cressler所言,白人的恐怖主義在少數族裔的宗教場所殺人,是行之有年的一套模式。它不應該被簡化為一個心理化的、偶發的、精神變態而令人髮指的單一事件。它是美國族群歷史中的餵養的根深蒂固的種族主義下的毒瘤發作,不只是一個瘋子與倒楣的受害者之間的遭逢。

When we think of white terrorist attacks on black churches, the first that comes to mind is the infamous civil rights–era bombing of the 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama, which claimed the lives of four black girls, Addie Mae Collins, Cynthia Wesley, Carole Robertson, and Carol Denise McNair. But to fully understand what has motivated white people to enter black places of worship and kill people for centuries—whether with nooses or bombs or guns—we must look back further still. One hundred and fifty years before Dylann Roof killed nine people at Mother Emanuel and a century before four members of the Ku Klux Klan dynamited the 16th Street Baptist Church in 1963, a wave of white Christian violence against black religious people and institutions swept the South.

這些黑人牧師、聚會者為了自己的理念而死,就算觸動白人至上者的神經、挑戰他們的極限(是的,美國黑人在從美式奴隸制的解放過程中,總是挑戰主流白人社會的極限,彷彿要求平等是一件大逆不道的事情、必須由白人施捨允許給他們),他們繼續做他們的禮拜,用自己的方式讀聖經。

Gods and spirits, songs and sermons, dancing and drums, scriptures and other sacred stories all played pivotal roles in black resistance to white domination, ever since the first Africans were carried across the Atlantic as slaves. When black Americans became Christian—which did not happen in large numbers until the 18th century—they did so in ways that challenged white assertions of black inhumanity. Slaves identified with the plight of the Israelites in the Book of Exodus and anxiously awaited the day when the wrath of God would rain down on the Egyptland of America, and they too would be set free.

白人恐怖主義的歷史,以及黑人教會的被攻擊,必須整體來看待。我們先有了黑人教會在南北內戰後紛紛獨立出來,然後有了針對黑人教會的恐怖攻擊。我們有了3K黨,然後最後才有了Jim Crow制度。

In the 1870s and 1880s, Northern whites once allied with black abolitionists withdrew their support. The historians David Blight and Edward Blum have both demonstrated how white people in the North and South prioritized reunion with each other over and against the prospect of rebuilding the nation free of white supremacy. With federal troops withdrawn from what had been the Confederate South, black churches and the women and men and children who made them met with destruction and devastation. White Christian paramilitary organizations like the Ku Klux Klan fought to restore white ruling order. (For more on the Klan’s activities in this period, read Kidada Williams’ article in Slate on the long history of white terrorism.) Black religious institutions were emblems of freedom in the face of domination and thus considered legitimate targets in the eyes of white supremacists. Terrorists burned black churches and lynched black people by the thousands. Vigilante violence paved the way for legal Jim Crow apartheid.

但除了義憤填膺的美國人(不論是譴責種族主義的自由派人士,或是那些想要把此種族仇恨罪行偽裝成「對基督教攻擊」的狐狸新聞這些右派保守人士)外,世界上有誰把他們當成英雄?事實上,在媒體呈現中,他們更像是倒楣的受害者。頂多是有基督精神光環的、願意原諒受害者的大愛者。但他們不是大家的英雄。原本不認識他們的人,沒有在三天內就決定他們值得敬佩。

悲傷,沈重。勿擾。

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This entry was posted on June 21, 2015 by in 【Anti-Orientalism 】 and tagged .
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